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 MY CRITICAL THINKING CLASS NOTES / RHETORICAL DEVICES

These are meant to be used when reading articles and commentary. Enjoy a deeper understanding . . .

MY CRITICAL THINKING CLASS NOTES / RHETORICAL DEVICES
I reduced the class down to less than three pages!
Juanita Holloway-Walters aka Texas Lady Juanita

PERSUASIVE:

EUPHEMISM – Good expression replacing bad one that may offend

INUENDO – Insinuation of something deprecatory

RHETORICAL DEFINITION – To influence attitude or affect behavior, use images w/ positive or negative emotions (also known as Rhetorical Explanation and Rhetorical Comparison)

DYSPEMISM – Bad expression used to tone down the good

LOADED QUESTION – Question that rests on one or more unwarranted or unjustified assumptions

RHETORICAL DEVICE – Influence attitudes or beliefs through association – adds to persuasive but not logical

DOWNPLAYER – Diminish importance of claim

PROOF SURROGATE – Expression in place of actual evidence or authority

HORSE LAUGH – Ridicule disguised as reasoning to reject claim

RHETORIC – Persuade rather than prove logically

STEREOTYPE – Oversimplified generalization about a person of a certain class

HYPERBOLE – Extravagant Overstatement

WEASELER – Expression used to protect claim from criticism by weakening it

COMMON FALLACIES:

AD HOMINEM – Argument against claim based on who made the claim instead of against the actual claim (cannot resist pointing out that The Tea Party people are attacked this way, with Ad Hominem arguments on the six o’clock news – by other political parties calling us names we would normally attribute to far left, and not debating the issues)

FALSE DILEMMA – Fallacious reasoning – x and y can both be false — false reasoning says x is true because y is false

PERSONAL ATTACK AD HOMINEM – Refusing claim because person making it we do not like, or we disapprove of them

APPEAL TO IGNORANCE – Lack of evidence against a claim doesn’t mean the claim gets any positive points

GENETIC FALLACY – YO Mama! Not really ha ha – Rejecting a claim on the basis of its origin or history

POISIONING THE WELL – Discrediting the claim in advance because we don’t like the person

BEGGING THE QUESTION – Argument in which conclusion is identical to the argument (restates argument)

INCONSISTENCEY AD HOMINEM – You can’t make that claim due to prior opposing stance (or your actions are opposite)

MISPLACED BURDEN OF PROOF – Case where burden of proof is on the wrong side

LINE-DRAWING FALLACY – Insisting that a line be drawn at x, when it could also be drawn at y or z

SLIPPERY SLOPE – Arguing that because x happens, then y and or z will also happen

CIRCUMSTANTIAL AD HOMINEM – Attempting to discredit claim by discrediting the person making the claim

PERFECTIONIST FALLACY – Concluding claim is false because its conclusion is not perfect

STRAW MAN – Ignores actual position and argues a distorted, exaggerated, or misrepresented position

PSYCHOLOGICAL & RELATED FALLACIES

WISHFUL THINKING – Accepting it because you want it to be true and vice versa

GUILT TRIP – Making someone feel guilty for not accepting claim

ARGUEMENT COMMON PRACTICE – Justify or defend on grounds that everyone knows it or does it

NATIONALISM – Because of nationalism one may be led to blind endorsement of policy or claim

ARGUMENT FROM ENVY – Induce acceptance by arousing feelings of envy

ARGUMENT FROM OUTRAGE – Invoking anger with inflammatory words followed by conclusion

ARGUMENT BY FORCE – Using threat to support some conclusion

ARGUMENT BY PEER PRESSURE – Threatened by rejection if you don’t accept a claim

GROUP THINK FALLACY – Identifying with a group takes the place of reason and deliberation on an issue

ARGUMENT FROM PITY – Supporting claim by invoking pity rather than legitimate argument

SCARE TACTICS – Frightening scenario instead of facts to get someone to see it your way

ARGUMENT FROM POPULARITY – Convince of argument just because all or most believe it

SMOKE SCREEN – Irrelevant topic introduced to lead you away from original issue (Politicians in Washington like this one)

RATIONALIZING – False pretext to satisfy our desires or interests (teens love this one)

SUBJECTIVISM – An assumption that is true for one person, yet not for another

RED HERRING – Same as SMOKESCREEN

ARGUMENT FROM TRADITION – Using tradition as the basis of a claim

RELATIVISM – Error that two different cultures can believe different on a fact (oh, I could write a book on this one)

TWO WRONGS MAKE A RIGHT – Saying I can hit you because you would hit me

SCAPEGOATING – Placing the blame on a person or a group in error because they are an easy target

Texas Lady Juanita

Copyright © 2018 by Juanita Holloway-Walters
All Rights Reserved.

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I AM A WHITE WOMAN BY BIRTH; WHO ARE YOU?

I am a woman.
I am wife to a Marine.
I am a mother.
I am a grandmother.
I am a Christian, by belief and faith.
(Baptized by the Holy Spirit)
I AM A WHITE WOMAN BY BIRTH – DECIDED BY THE LORD
(Psalm 139, Jeremiah 29:11, Galatians 1:15)

I believe The Lord has a plan for my life that is good.
(Jeremiah 29:11 again.)

America is a super-majority white population. We are not bad people because our skin is white, by any sane definition. Isn’t this the whole idea of MLK (and many others), that our skin color does not define the measure of who we are individually, or as a group. Our media is involved in a reverse discrimination propaganda scheme for decades that is hardly to be believed by intelligent people in the 21st century.

America is also 85% Christian, which also has a super-majority of white people. We are a good people as evidenced in our love of positive endeavor, family, charity, and goodness. We are NOT Neo-Nazis, White Supremacists, KKK Members, or any other title others wish to falsely appoint to us.

I am appalled by the number of people in the above two groups brave enough to vote for Trump, who have since gone to sleep, and allow a group-think mentality to run amuck in our nation. Why anyone watches the – paid for by our enemies – news reports, is becoming beyond ridiculously sad. ONLY AMERICANS TOGETHER CAN MAKE AMERICA GREAT AGAIN. This was Trumps whole campaign, and it requires the mental and physical activity of those who voted for him, to stand with him, and not let our enemies win the day – any day!

In prior generations, to be conservative thinkers, made us the backbone of a great nation. We were careful to raise our children to be responsible, productive and loving. It is the abandonment of knowing what it means to be a Christian nation that has so many allowing themselves to be called such vile names as White Supremacists. Consequently, we are now in for the fight of our lives to set our nation back on its correct Representative Constitutional Republic course. The more of us who wake up and join in, the quicker we will get rid of the insanity.

However, I always offer the caution: that does not mean that we become a nation of witch hunters. Learn from the history that tells people that turning 360 degrees from group insanity leaves you on the other side of the group insanity coin. Be humble in your self-corrections, and be strong in your faith. Take your prayers to your knees in your heart and mind, God will do the rest. (Also remember: “Matthew 18:20 (KJV) For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them.”)

Face it. America is full of “luke-warm” Christians, and “milk” Christians who need to come back to the real church. The Church is not any denomination, but the Body of Christ – Period. Yes, we are to have fellowship, but that means as Christians – not divided into over 2,000 denominations. Divided we fall.

There are the true lessons in The Bible that must be learned. Here is a good one: You must love the enemy in your heart and soul; but you may have to defend innocents with The Lord’s help from your enemy. No, I didn’t even understand it for many years, but I know that there can be understanding – one step at a time until you get there. We, who have come to understanding the Bible on a deeper level, spent much time floundering before we got the insight as He means it to be. It came from much prayer before and after study, and the avenues opened to other people further in their endeavor to learn and understand.

‘Through Him All Things Are Possible. It is time for Americans who are Christian to come to the true church in the Body of Christ. When we do that, humble ourselves, have sincere repentance for our sins, and become changed after connecting, and being baptized in the Holy Spirit, He will start healing us and our nation.’ (2 Chronicles 7:14)
Taking you back to my childhood . . . so long ago . . . read the words . . .

“Onward, Christian Soldiers”

by Arthur Sullivan

‘This hymn is Sullivan’s most popular hymn. The hymn’s theme is taken from references in the New Testament of the Christian soldier for Christ.’
(II Timothy 2:3 (KJV): “Thou therefore endure hardness, as a good soldier of Jesus Christ.”)

1

“Onward Christian soldiers!

Marching as to war,

With the cross of Jesus

Going on before.

Christ, the royal Master,

Leads against the foe;

Forward into battle,

See, His banners go!

Onward, Christian soldiers!

Marching as to war,

With the cross of Jesus,

Going on before.

2

“At the name of Jesus

Satan’s host doth flee;

On then, Christian soldiers,

On to victory!

Hell’s foundations quiver

At the shout of praise:

Brothers, lift your voices,

Loud your anthems raise!

3

Like a mighty army

Moves the Church of God:

Brothers, we are treading

Where the saints have trod;

We are not divided,

All one Body we—

One in faith and Spirit,

One eternally.

4

“Crowns and thrones may perish,

Kingdoms rise and wane;

But the Church of Jesus

Constant will remain.

Gates of hell can never

’Gainst the Church prevail;

We have Christ’s own promise,

Which can never fail.

5

“Onward, then, ye people!

Join our happy throng;

Blend with ours your voices

In the triumph song.

Glory, laud and honor

Unto Christ, the King;

This through countless ages

Men and angels sing.”

Two good places to re-start your journey into your Bible:
Ephesians 3 KJV; John 1 KJV

God Bless.

You can quote me on this 😊

Texas Lady Juanita

Juanita Holloway-Walters

Copyright © 2017 by Juanita Holloway-Walters, All Rights Reserved

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